This reality can also be something that we are going to prove or our view point towards the reality. I am a PhD scholar, employing parallel convergent mixed methods design with pragmatism as a paradigm. Ontology and epistemology are two different ways of viewing a research philosophy.. Ontology in business research can be defined as “the science or study of being” and it deals with the nature of reality. ... and especially its ontology, offers much to the analysis of education research. There is no thing that has objective existence, not even the fact of there not being anything. I think I'd like to take this offline and start a new thread since it only has small bearing on Wayfarer's OP. I thought that constructivism and interpretivism are the same but ive been reading and it seems i might be mistaken. What is the difference between epistemology and theoretical perspective and between Constructivism and Interpretivism in educational research? would have perhaps worded it as "Not anything is", and I'm not asserting it, but just asserting the viability of it. Everything in it is considered as an object in the same sense. Worth reading is Roy Bhaskar's critical realism offering a relatively new ontological position that argues for a stratified reality. As for where Constructionism fits into this system, most people would consider it a form of relativism. What do you think about it? Ontology is concerned with the nature of reality. I guess you should also ask yourself if you truly believe that the things (reality) are constructed by our interpretations. To illustrate, realist ontology relates to the existence of one single reality which can be studied, understood and experienced as a ‘truth’; a real world exists independent of human experience. I think the assumption "there is nothing", would need to be supported, and this would be impossible to support. Numbers are abstract (not real) to us, but relate (are real) to each other. In addition, there has been significant evolution in what is meant by the term "real". Because CR principles are usually used to underpin the developme… All disciplines proliferate into sub-disciplines of sub-disciplines. That is another thing, that in the mainstream philosophy the corresponding philosophers “solve” this problem seems without understanding that to answer on this question, including in every concrete case of “perceiving” concrete things, it is necessary before to know – what these things are?, what is who perceives? It's a jumble of everything in the broadest possible (or at least ridiculously broad) mathematised sense of a jumble of everything. Similarly, we don’t require objective existence to relate to other parts of the structure. As I explained in this post- ‘Why do I need a research philosophy?’, you need to define your world views and perspectives in terms of your research. As Salman patel indicated this approach commonly follow the quantitative research methods. Volume 2, No. My question is, Has anyone adopted pragmatism as underlying epistemology for his/her research? Ontologically, either you're a realist or an anti-realist. But that evidence is based on only relations, so the premise of "there is something" is unfounded since the same empirical evidence is had in either interpretation. Constructivist Realism: An Ontology That Encompasses Positivist and Constructivist Approaches to the Social Sciences. https://www.researchgate.net/post/What_are_the_terms_for_various_ontological_positions_Are_realism_and_relativism_ontological_positions_If_yes_what_do_they_mean, unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics. In medieval philosophy, r… What empirical difference would that make? I agree that absolute/relative is a different axis to realist/anti-realist (objective/subjective). There are many different forms of relativism, with a great deal of variation in scope and differing degrees of controversy among them. In other words, if all knowledge is subjectively constructed, then the "true" nature of reality doesn't matter, because we can never get outside our socially based constructions. Both involve the same type of coding techniques it seems so is there any difference at all? What is really so, and, in spite of that in epistemology were/are published innumerous “solutions”, these solutions have “senses”, which haven’t – and cannot have principally, any real senses; besides some quite banal “solutions” as, say, publications about the “scientific method”, which is known practically for any multicellular living being on Earth completely, and for, say, bacteria essentially, which constantly study their environment, say, aimed at to find a food. Luca Ignasi makes a very good point, and it fits with a little more reading I did on Crotty. I've given examples of how structures have relations independent of their ontology. - are next examples how the indeed philosophy helps indeed sciences. Interpretivism and positivism are two popular research paradigms.To understand both, it is best to start with understanding what research paradigm means. In this formal sense a question of whether something exists in any sense is really only answerable to the sense in which it operates - Pegasus and a stick operate differently, who cares what we call existent and not, the operational difference suffices. The SS comment to some official paper how physics “measure consciousness” in the Hossein’s project list, a couple of the last SS posts in the thread. I know that these two methods are similar, but I have a problem to show differences between them. In that sense, pragmatism rejects a position between the two opposing viewpoints. Show More. A curious thing about the ontological problem is its simplicity. Positivism: The Researcher as Scientist ! The problem I am having is that mathematics is our way of interpreting the world and not that mathematics itself exists outside of us. But a relativist would say that just because it is not objectively wrong to do act X, it … objective, or you accept that reality is only subjective (anti-realist)." I think the assumption "there is nothing", would need to be supported, and this would be impossible to support. I'm not all that familiar with Crotty, but I know that he identified with pragmatism (e.g., William James and John Dewey), which generally takes an agnostic view towards ontological issues. What is pragmatism? Institute of Physics of the National Academy of Science of Ukraine. To read two last SS comments to some RG member’s comment to the paper with the Shevchenko-Tokarevsky’s informational physical model, - which [the model] is based on the “The Information as Absolute” conception, are useful for understanding – what are the conception and the model. 7 exists in relation to 9, or to the set of integers, but our universe is not existent in relation to them any more than numbers are real to us. This is essentially the universe as considered in the OP. Numbers are abstract (not real) to us, but relate (are real) to each other. Ontology, epistemology, axiology and research methods associated with critical realism research philosophy. Wouldn't relationships need the existence of non-relationships to exist as relationships? qualitative research invokes a realist ontology because the research questions asked and the claims made on the basis of such research contain realist assumptions and have realist aspirations. I think it's reasonable to posit that every particular can be related to every other particular in some way, and all relations can be related (and so on). Gerald Cupchik. So when you say 'it doesn't matter whether it exists or it doesn't' - you're missing the sense of why in question. Thus, rather than asking questions about the nature of truth, it would concentrate on what difference it makes to act one way rather than another. Show why it is a contradiction of logic for the angles of an abstract square to be right angles, or why the analogy is invalid. Could someone please explain the difference or provide references as to where i might find the distinction? - are next examples how indeed philosophy helps sciences. [from Research Gate]. We need to draw a clear line between ontology and epistemology. The actual is only a part of the real world, which also consists of non-actualised possibilities and unexercised powers of the already existing structures and mechanisms that are transfactually efficacious in open systems. Is this crotty? Ontological realism claims that at least a part of reality is ontologically independent of human minds. It would be impossible. I have returned. So I noticed the question presumes there is something. This post has two components, one is an attempt to sketch the construction of a ridiculously inclusive mathematical object which serves as the background 'model of things' in the OP, and the other attempts to situate what an ontology is in relation to the ridiculously inclusive object. I want to suggest that most qualitative research is actually based upon a position of ontological realism together with epistemological relativism. I have an article on this topic that you can find here on RG: @David L Morgan, Many thanks Sir for your insightful and yet simplistic explanation. Thank you all for responding to my thread. Either you accept facts are real independently of the "human mind" (realist), i.e. Not sure of this, since the structure itself is all that matters, and that doesn't change with ontology. a 'mathematical structure' -- seems to render it as 'something', in an abstract sort of way. In- 7 exists in relation to 9, or to the set of integers, but our universe is not existent in relation to them any more than numbers are real to us. Typical Methods: Surveys, Questionnaires, Random Sampling If there was nothing, however, I wouldn't see people or other stuff or anything at all, because there would be nothing there to see. - is incorrect even in the mainstream philosophy, that is the subject of epistemology. There is of course something. Constructivism, on the other hand, is an epistemological position. In general, pragmatism proposes a totally different approach to philosophy of knowledge that rejects the value of versions that rely on ontology and epistemology. This seeming paradox has been brought up in many threads, including the cosmological argument for God, but they all seem like rationalizations. The universe is a mathematical structure and things within it are real to each other. And, "there is something" is the premise which supports the cosmological argument. We know more and more about less and less. As for the idea of 'nothing', the very act of giving it a name -- i.e. There is something to see. Realism, in philosophy, the view that accords to things that are known or perceived an existence or nature that is independent of whether anyone is thinking about or perceiving them. Is it a method of validating the information collected through various methods? Michael Dummett on realism, anti-realism and metaphysics, gestalt principles and realism: a phenomenological exploration, New article published: The Argument for Indirect Realism. Every event can be related to any other event through the relations of antecedence and subsequence - occurred before and after interpreted as an ordering relation. Besides, to understand – what is the SS&VT ““The Information as Absolute” conception”, to read a few SS posts in the thread, - any rational answers on this question doesn’t, and cannot principally, exist in the mainstream philosophy. objective, or you accept that reality is only subjective (anti-realist). Critical Realism (CR) is a philosophy of science that is based around a number of ontological principles. 7 exists in relation to 9, or to the set of integers, but our universe is not existent in relation to them any more than numbers are real to us. On your view, numbers seem to have an existence independent of matter (and mind) which would qualify as Platonic realism about universals. Imagine that we have access to the set of all particulars and every n-ary (generalised) relation between them (a construction similar to this but allowing 2-morphisms to map to 1-morphisms and introducing such 'cross' relations of arbitrary order and scope). To get some background on these two positions, I would start with the Wikipedia entries on: Naive Realism, Scientific Realism, and Relativism. Realist in that, e.g., we have a biologically limited manner to understand reality and we gradually know more and more as we research, and anti-realist in that, e.g., we build our own reality based on our individual experiences. Research philosophy is essentially a set of beliefs or metaphysics that represent the researcher’s world-view; the nature of ‘the world’, the individual’s place in it and the range of possible relationships to that world. Relativism isn't mainly an ontological position but its drawn from Idealism where the thinking precedes the object and reality is as a result of our constructions and interpretations. This was an excellent discussion, thank you all. Ontological theories are based on either one or the other. According to Marsh and Furlong all these terms share similar connotations. Ontology regards the existence of facts and objects, while epistemology regards whether we can know them or not, and if objectively or subjectively. Even if it doesn't matter there's still a hell of a lot of work to do interpreting the thing. However, these are not the only choices available. Critical realist ontology explains why there are multiple possible futures. What if there wasn’t? 'Realist', unqualified typically refers to the position that there is an existence independent of human mind. Experiences are representations of things and are not necessary for the existence of those things. Anyone please tell me if I am right about the two philosophical divisions? There are a great deal of variations, but scientific constructivism as proposed by Kuhn (Thomas Kuhn, "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions", 1962 is a must-read if you intend to verse regarding this subject) is a realist approach in that understanding of reality is a cooperative endeavour through paradigm shifts as scientifical revolutions. Relativist epistemology is subjective. There remains room for disagreement over cases; and so the issue has stayed alive down the centuries. This is pretty straight-forward relativism, except it is ontology this time, a topic rarely covered. I found that all my views have come from exploring two simple questions, one of which is “Why is there something, not nothing?”. Consequently, every departure from realism, the philosophy which I defend, is a step towards accommodating some views characteristic of relativism. It may certainly be opposed to various other positions. It is not platonic realsim. I have my reservations with mathematical realism and you would need to do somewhat better, however alluring Tegmark or Plato are. All the evidence indicates that there is something, therefore "there is something" is a more sound premise than "there is nothing". objective, or you accept that reality is only subjective (anti-realist). If you take any particular, there will be various different types of relation that apply to it. While difficult to get past the bias that there needs to be something, it turns out there is no difference. Abstract. The usual strategy in relativist expositions is first to attack the validi-ty of the standard realist/empiricist thesis, and then to expound the rel-ativist alternative. Subjective or Objective? The role of science is to strive for casual relationships, an essential ... nonetheless it is worth debating proposing a practical approach to the realist-relativist dichotomy.
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