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economic benefit of mangroves

Model 4 uses bins representing 1-km steps of mangrove width and is labeled with diamonds. Furthermore, the survival of juvenile fish is aided by the long residence time of water amongst the mangroves, which is facilitated by the mangrove roots. We find that hurricanes lead to significant losses in economic activity in the short run and that wide mangrove belts are capable of mitigating these losses. ↵§The 2 to 7 km range is derived by assuming that the height of storm surge for these categories of hurricanes is between 1.2 and 3.6 m (45), and that storm surge is reduced by 50 cm per km of mangrove width, as estimated by (15) for the Florida Gulf Coast. Mangrove forests have received considerable attention because their aerial root and canopy structure makes them capable of reducing wave action (8⇓⇓–11), wind velocity (12), and storm surge (13⇓⇓–16). Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on PNAS. Our estimate of β is negative and statistically significant at the 5% level. Specifically, in terms of density, mangroves near the equator are characterized by dense aboveground biomass and by less pronounced seasonal variation in their density (29). Coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds protect communities from storms, and are critical for the sustainability of many economic activities, jobs, and inclusive growth. Water. Harvested for durable, water-resistant wood, mangroves have been used in building houses, boats, pilings, and furniture. Report profiling the socio-economic role of mangroves (quantitatively and qualitatively) as well as the status of their representation in national development planning, including recommendations how to improve on both and to the benefit of people and nature (if Intuitively, because mangrove forests act as barriers to obstruct flow and buffer winds, protection is expected to increase with their density and width (28). We find that hurricanes have negative short-run effects on economic activity, with losses likely concentrated in coastal lowlands at risk for both wind and storm surge. Cost-Benefit Analysis of Mangrove Conservation Versus Shrimp Aquaculture in Bintuni Bay and Mimika, Indonesia 6 . The estimated coefficients highlight that the benefits of mangrove protection occur among cells with 1 km or more of mangrove width in their path to the coast. Next, Fig. To estimate whether mangroves can reduce hurricane damage, we divide Central America into 1-km2 grid cells and construct a cell–year panel for the 2000 to 2013 period. Daniel etal. In comparison, Thorhaug (1990) also describes a cost/benefit analysis of restoration, which includes an evaluation of the cost to plant seagrasses versus the use benefits. We find that in our sample the average mangrove width is 0.9 km, with a minimum of 0 km and a maximum of 10.11 km. More than 1.4 billion people live in coastal areas at risk for tropical cyclones (1). S1 shows the tracks of the 44 tropical storms and hurricanes in our sample. Your email address is used only to let the recipient know who sent the email. This The Gulf of California Marine Program has worked hard to demonstrate the economic benefit of these healthy ecosystems. Their dense roots help bind and build soils. The increasing losses from tropical cyclones in developing countries highlight the importance of understanding how natural habitats can be used to protect assets and economic activity against this hazard. and J.J.M. provided data; and A.d.V., M.E., O.A.I., and J.J.M. The social and economic arguments for mangrove conservation are based on the role of these forests in providing well-being both to those dependent on their products, and their ecological services. 89 species; 35 of them are trees, and the rest are in form of terma (5 species), perdu (9 species), liana (9 species), epiphyte (29 species) and parasite (2 species). While interventions, such as early warning systems, may be cost effective in terms of saving lives (5), coastal defense interventions to protect assets and prevent disruptions to economic activity tend to be expensive to construct and maintain (e.g., seawalls or embankments) and can have adverse ecological side effects (6). Edited by Stephen Polasky, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN, and approved November 14, 2019 (received for review July 7, 2019). Nonetheless, because storm surge is often considered one of the most damaging aspects of hurricanes, we further investigate whether coastal lowlands are disproportionately affected by hurricanes. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, DMSP OLS Nighttime Lights Time Series (Version 4, 2016). The women are developing a project to effectively and sustainably manage their mangroves and near shore fisheries over-fishing and over-harvesting. An important concern is that our heterogeneity results are not driven by mangrove protection but rather, by factors related to distance to the coast. All errors and opinions are our own. For the first model (q = 2), we create a dummy variable for each bin and interact these variables with the f damage index. We use this map to identify areas that have historically supported mangrove habitats. These results are based on industry-standard approaches using probabilistic and process-based valuations of flood risk and the damages averted by mangroves. Mangrove peat absorbs water during heavy rains and storm surge, reducing. As before, we additionally test and are able, in both cases, to reject the null hypotheses of equality between the last bin and the previous bin (P value <0.001). For the above-average mangrove areas, however, the economic growth rate only went down about 3% to 6%, equivalent to a loss of roughly four months of economic activity. Names of Black Mangrove in various languages of the world are also given. Mangrove ecosystems represent natural capital capable of producing a wide range of goods and services for coastal environments and communities and society as a whole. In many coastal areas, communities are still critically dependent on the ecosystem services mangroves provide. part may be reproduced without the written permission. By comparison, the coefficient for storm surge-prone areas is sharply estimated and clearly indicates that hurricanes have considerable negative effects in this area. However, the true economic value of mangrove diversity and natural resources is difficult to measure and important ecological processes and functions undervalued. Mangroves significantly reduce annual and catastrophic damages from storms and are a strong first line of defense for coastal communities, according to … We measure local economic activity using remote sensing data on nightlights, potential hurricane destruction using a damage index derived from a wind field model calibrated for Central America, and mangrove protection by calculating the cumulative width of mangroves along the closest path to the coast. These satellites record daily cloud formation by measuring the amount of moonlight reflected by clouds at night. The data and code used in this paper can be found in the open Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research repository. Our nightlights dataset is composed of 22 satellite–year composites for the period 2000 to 2013. 2, 225–235 (2018), The short-term economic impact of tropical cyclone pam: An analysis using VIIRS nightlight satellite imagery, The local impact of typhoons on economic activity in China: A view from outer space, Weathering storms: Understanding the impact of natural disasters in Central America, International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Mangroves as a coastal protection from waves in the Tong King delta, Vietnam, Non-linearity in ecosystem services: Temporal and spatial variability in coastal protection. Consideration of the economic value of these natural systems is critical in planning and development along Florida's coastline, where mangroves currently occupy only a fraction of their historical extent because of development and other hydrologic modifications. What is an ecological benefit of preserving mangroves? Mangroves are extraordinary tropical forests that grow at the edge of the land and sea. Mangroves are recognized as a provider of a variety of products and essential ecosystem services that contribute significantly to the livelihood of local communities. Recent work in ref. You can be assured our editors closely monitor every feedback sent and will take appropriate actions. This transformation imposes a threshold below which damage is unlikely to occur, it guarantees that damage will approach unity for very high wind speeds, and it accounts for the physical property that wind power (the rate of increase of kinetic energy) from a hurricane is proportional to the third power of wind speed. Second, we sum the line segments to measure cumulative mangrove width on the shortest path to the coast. Institutional arrangements are shown to be effective for mangrove restoration and management with high economic returns. Click here to sign in with To measure the distribution of surface winds from hurricanes in Central America during our sample period, we use the wind field model developed in ref. Cyclone damage is expected to increase as a result of more frequent high-intensity storms created by climate change and increased exposure created by the ongoing movement of people and assets to high-risk coastal areas (2⇓–4). They are also discussing innovative approaches such as placing an economic value on mangroves for storing blue carbon. Mangroves and other blue carbon ecosystems provide many services that people benefit from . These losses matter, as mangroves provide numerous services and benefits to nature and to people. Fig. The resulting cell–year panel is composed of 212,072 cells, which we observe for 13 y. The most affected cells in our sample experience an f of 0.23; the average f among impacted cells is 0.004. The damage index f is given byfit=max(Vit−VT,0)VH−VT31+max(Vit−VT,0)VH−VT3,[1]where Vit represents wind speed in cell i and year t, VT is the threshold below which damage is unlikely to occur (it is set at 92.6 km/h [50 knots]), and VH is the wind speed at which half of all structures are expected to be destroyed, 277.8 km/h (150 knots). Although his study only measures the direct economic benefits of mangrove protection, he believes that their total benefits are much greater, since storms could have long-term effects on … 215-218. Mangroves as bioshield: An undisputable fact, Earthscan with International Society for Mangrove Ecosystems, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, The Nature Conservancy, UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre, United Nations Scientific and Cultural Organisation, United Nations University, The view from above: Applications of satellite data in economics, “Windstorm hazard model for disaster risk assessment in Central America”, Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Wind Engineering, Naturally negative: The growth effects of natural disasters, Economic development and natural disasters: A satellite data analysis, The long-term consequences of disasters: What do we know, and what we still don’t, Catastrophic natural disasters and economic growth, The protective service of mangrove ecosystems: A review of valuation methods. Each composite covers Central America and contains information on 604,473 1-km2 grid cells. "Illuminating the need for ecological knowledge in economic valuation of mangroves under different management regimes -- a critique," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. A recent report, “Forces of Nature,” examines the considerable flood risk reduction services that mangroves provide to Jamaica, together with benefits related to fisheries production, and carbon sequestration. MANGROVES are more beneficial to fishing communities than fish farming, which employs few workers, a marine scientist said at an online forum organized by Oceana Philippines. List of various diseases cured by Black Mangrove. Ecological Economics 10, 133–247. The research, published last month in the journal Scientific Reports, finds that without mangroves, flood damage costs would increase by more than US$ 65 billion a year, and 15 million more people would be flooded. Fig. 2C plots distance to the coast for each model and bin. Mangroves, including associated soils, could sequester approximately 22.8 million metric tons of carbon each year. However, over the past decades, mangroves in many tropical areas including the Takalar district, South Sulawesi have degraded and decreased mainly due to conversion to aquaculture. 2A plots the point estimates and 95% confidence intervals for each of these models. 15. Online ISSN 1091-6490. 18, recent work). Do mangroves provide an effective barrier to storm surges? Table 1 shows, consistent with previous literature, that hurricanes have considerable short-run negative effects on local economic activity. Specifically, the estimated f coefficient is statistically significant and nearly identical to that of column 1 in Table 1, while the lagged coefficient is small and statistically indistinguishable from 0. Timber. Currently, little is known about the economic benefits of commercialization of aquaculture as compared to those derived from mangroves in the form of products and services. They also provide economic benefits to … We find that there are 3,853 cells (49% of cells in storm surge-prone areas) with mangrove on their path to the coast. "This work helps to identify where to invest cost effectively in habitat restoration and conservation, which is critical for building coastal resilience," said project team leader Michael Beck, research professor of ocean sciences at UC Santa Cruz. Our results are important for policy makers because they highlight that mangrove conservation and restoration efforts can be used in coastal lowlands to protect economic activity against tropical cyclones. Data on the distribution of mangroves come from 2 sources. These major processes in turn support healthy fisheries, medicines, fibers, wood, and fuels. The second source is ref. The first line of defense for Hurricane Dorian is the shoreline, Elephants found to have the highest volume of daily water loss ever recorded in a land animal, Sediment cores from Dogger Littoral suggest Dogger Island survived ancient tsunami, Study of river otters near oilsands operations shows reduced baculum strength, A possible way to measure ancient rate of cosmic ray strikes using 'paleo-detectors', Thermonuclear type-I X-ray bursts detected from MAXI J1807+132. We estimate damages averted by mangroves for four storm frequen- Our preferred specification explores the impact of hurricanes in steps of 1-km mangrove width. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Black Mangrove. 42. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Privacy Policy Forestry net benefits accounted for $4,800 per year, lagoon fishery $53,600 per year, coastal fishery $98,600 The study used the risk insurance industry's latest and most rigorous high-resolution flood and loss catastrophe models and an extensive database of property exposure to estimate property damages from storms with and without mangroves in Florida. Modeling the impact of mangroves at high resolution, we can put a value on the risk reduction benefits they bring to coastal properties every year," said Christopher Thomas, lead modeler at RMS. A simple counterfactual simulation for coastal Nicaragua reveals that avoided losses from protection by mangroves account for up to 2.5% of the economic activity observed in Nicaragua’s coast in 2000. Mangroves also provide habitat for many species of fish and birds. Mangrove forests provide a multitude of environmental and economic benefits to coastal systems around the world such as providing habitats for a variety of species and serving an important role in carbon sequestration. Mangroves protect species that are the basis of a $7.6 billion seafood. wrote the paper. The Economic Value of Mangroves: A Meta-Analysis Marwa E. Salem 1,2, * and D. Evan Mercer 3 1 Department of Economics, North Carolina St ate University, 2801 Founders Drive, Raleigh, In the United States, mortality rates and life expectancy were worse for Blacks during nonpandemic years than for Whites during the COVID-19 pandemic, a study finds. Since its inception in 2014, Mikoko Pamoja Community Based Organisation has been able to ensure conservation of 117 ha of mangroves in the Gazi bay. The first set of results shows that, consistent with previous literature, hurricanes have negative short-run effects on economic activity (20⇓⇓⇓⇓–25, 35⇓⇓–38). What is an economic benefit of preserving mangroves in coastal ecosystems? Ocean and Coastal Management 46: 823–844. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. In these coastal lowlands, the estimates show that nightlights decrease by up to 24% in areas that are unprotected by mangroves. This creates a relatively calm water environmen… 2A, model 1 (q = 2), the bins correspond to cells with above- and below-median mangrove width on their path to the coast (0.63 km). We then take the resulting variables and include them in Eq. Mangrove forests provide nature experiences for people such as birding, fishing, snorkeling, kayaking, paddle boarding, and the therapeutic calm and relaxation that comes from enjoying peaceful time in nature. This model uses an asymmetric Holland equation that has been calibrated for Central America. To show that these findings are not driven by a mechanical relationship between mangrove width and distance to the coast, we additionally show that, in coastal lowlands, the impact of hurricanes does not decrease with distance to the coast in the absence of wide mangrove belts. Moreover, the dense stilt root systems of the Rhizophora spp., which is commonly found in Central America, have been shown to be effective at dissipating wave energy (11, 15) and withstanding storms (30, 31). Author contributions: A.d.V. The coefficient for nonstorm surge-prone areas is negative, but noisily estimated, we cannot rule out that it is statistically indistinguishable from 0 or from the coefficient for storm surge-prone areas. The amount of organic matter produced by mangroves will support not only the mangrove ecosystem itself but also other related ecosystems. Mangroves and seagrass provide habitat for important commercial and recreational species, help stabilize the seafloor, and filter pollutants Seagrass habitat helps to support a thriving, multi-million dollar recreational fishery including flats fishing for bonefish and tarpon. Image credit: Rosenzweig lab, Weizmann Institute of Science. In Vietnam, some 9,000 hectares of reforested mangroves were shown to have substantial benefit-cost ratios, from 3:1 in some communes to 28:1 in others. To ensure that the effect is driven by the mangrove vegetation itself and not by other characteristics of the location of mangrove habitats, we further restrict our sample to cells that have been historically protected by mangrove habitats. The valuation was calculated using the total economic value framework Your opinions are important to us. The new study complements recent work on the value of Florida's reefs for storm protection, which further highlights the billions of dollars in benefits that these habitats deliver to Florida taxpayers. Second, while climate change and the resulting intensification of storms may increase the value of conservation for protection purposes, areas designated for conservation or restoration must be carefully chosen given the threat of sea-level rise (46). and M.E. This site uses cookies to assist with navigation, analyse your use of our services, and provide content from third parties. 1 provides a visual representation of the mangrove width calculation in the coast where the largest event in our sample made landfall (Hurricane Felix). We repeat this procedure using q = 3 and q = 4. Mangroves are most effective in flood risk reduction where they are abundant and located in front of areas with high densities of people and property. Specifically, we create a coastal lowland indicator variable identifying contiguous areas along the coast that are less than 10 m above sea level. Our results fall into 2 categories. We additionally conduct various robustness checks and rule out that these findings are driven by the physical characteristics of the location of the mangrove habitat or by the distance to the coast. Accordingly, we conclude that in our sample, where 95% of observations are within 18 km of the coastline, the reduction in hurricane impact is not driven by distance to the coast but rather, by the protection provided by the mangrove. In this study, the value of mangroves with regard to coastal flood risk reduction was estimated via a case study of the Tana Delta, Kenya. In this paper, we show that wide mangrove belts in Central America have the potential to mitigate the disruption to economic activity generated by hurricanes. According to a report by the Global Commission on Adaptation, protecting Mangroves worldwide can enhance the economic and financial benefits, surpassing 1 trillion dollars globally. In other parts of the world, people have utilized mangrove trees as a renewable resource. An alternative coastal defense intervention is the conservation and restoration of natural habitats that can provide protection against cyclones (7). This document is subject to copyright. It presents a meta-analysis of the economic valuation literature and applies the estimated value function to assess the value of mangroves in Southeast Asia. 34. The conclusion, at least for the shrimp farmer, is clear - there is an economic benefit of converting the mangroves. On the whole, the previous models indicate that cells with 1 km or more of mangrove width along their path to the coast suffer considerably less damage from hurricanes. SI Appendix, section SI2 has a step-by-step description of this counterfactual calculation. The green line segments represent mangrove on the path to the coast. Next, for each of the remaining cells, we calculate mangrove width in 2 steps. The parameter β measures the impact of hurricanes on nightlights under the assumption that these shocks are exogenous. This observation implies that large-scale efforts will be required to achieve the benefits of mangrove protection.

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